MacDonald, B. H., & Soomai, S. S. (2019). Environmental research and knowledge production within governmental organizations. In L. Börjesson & I. Huvila (Eds.), Research outside the Academy (pp. 21–50). Palgrave Macmillan / Springer International Publishing. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-94177-6_2
For decades, governmental organizations have produced large numbers of research publications designed to explain and overcome deteriorating environmental conditions. This chapter describes characteristics of research products created by governments that facilitate their use in marine environmental management. In operational decision-making contexts, technical reports produced by governments may be favored over academic research owing to their relevance, timeliness, and authority. However, governmental organizations increasingly partner with external groups, such as academic researchers, to produce research publications in response to expectations for greater transparency in decision-making and decreasing public resources for research. Whether originating solely in governmental organizations or in collaboration with academic researchers, the knowledge generated by and for governments can satisfy multiple purposes.